Lung Cancer Surgery

Lung Cancer is a type of Cancer which starts in the Lungs and also one of the leading causes of death in the world. Lungs are important part of the respiratory system. The main function of Lungs is to take oxygen while inhaling and to release the carbon dioxide during exhaling. Smoking is the main cause of Lung Cancer. It occurs due to the tumor present in the Lungs. This tumor is formed due to the accumulation of cancerous cells in the lungs.

Dr. Amit Chakraborty is an expert Cancer Surgeon in the treatment Lung diseases. Dr Amit Cancer Care Clinic is a well equipped with advanced medical technology to provide effective and best treatment to cancer patients.

 

Types of Lung Cancer:

 

The two general types of lung cancer include:

 

  • Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): Small cell lung cancer mostly occurs in heavy or chain smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer:

Lung Cancer does not show any specific symptoms at the earliest stage. Signs and symptoms of lung cancer can be seen in advanced stage only. Common symptoms are:

  • A continuous Coughing
  • Coughing up blood even a small amount
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Hoarseness
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Bone pain
  • Headache

Causes of Lung Cancer:

Major causes of lung cancer include:

 

Smoking: Around 90 percent of Lung Cancer occurs due to the Smoking. When person starts smoking, the smoke starts damaging lung tissue. The lungs can repair the damages but continuous exposure of smoke affects the functions of lungs. Once cells are completely damaged, they start behaving abnormally thus increasing high chances of developing Lung Cancer.

 

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Even if person doesn’t smoke, the risk of lung cancer increases if person is exposed to secondhand smoke.

 

Exposure to Radon Gas: Radon is produced by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water that finally becomes part of the breath. High levels of radon can accumulate in any building or homes. Breathing such type of radioactive gases can cause Lung cancer.

 

Exposure to Asbestos and other Carcinogens: Workplace exposure to Asbestos and other harmful chemical substances such as arsenic, chromium and nickel can cause Lung Cancer.

 

Family History of Lung Cancer

People with a parent, sibling or child with lung cancer always have higher risk of Lung Cancer disease.

 

 Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

Early stage Diagnosis is very crucial in the treatment of Lung Cancer. Doctor asks patient to perform various tests to detect exact type and stage of cancer. Various tests include:

 

  • Imaging Tests: Imaging tests include X-ray, MRI, PET and CT scan. These tests are useful to detect abnormal mass as well as produce more detail view of Lungs, so that smaller lesions can be easily detected.

 

  • Sputum Cytology: In this method, Sputum is examined under the microscope. It shows the presence of lung cancer cells.

 

  • Bronchoscopy: In this method, a tube is passed down the throat and into patient’s lungs for closer examination of Lungs. Bronchoscopy is performed under general anesthesia.
  • Mediastinoscopy: In this procedure, doctor makes an incision at the base of the neck. A lighted instrument is inserted and surgical tools are used to take samples from lymph nodes. It’s usually performed in a hospital under general anesthesia.
  • Needle Biopsy: A needle is inserted through the chest wall and into the suspicious lung tissue with the help of imaging tests. The Needle biopsy can also be used to test lymph nodes.

Treatment of Lung Cancer:

 

Cancer Surgeon decides the most effective treatment plans based on the overall health of a patient, the type and stages of cancer. Most important treatment options include:

 

Surgery: Minimally Invasive technique and Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) is the most advanced form of surgery and it has various benefits over traditional surgery such as minimal pain, less blood loss, faster recovery, no tissue cutting and less hospitalization stay. A doctor performs Lung Cancer Surgery as per the stage and severity of Lung Cancer. The surgeries are:

 

Wedge Resection: This surgery is done to remove a small section of lung that contains the tumor along with a margin of healthy tissue.

 

Segmental Resection: It is used to remove a larger portion of lung but not an entire lobe.

 

Lobectomy: This surgery is performed to remove the entire lobe of one lung.

Pneumonectomy:  This surgery is performed to remove an entire lung.

 

Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. During radiation therapy, patient lie on a table while a machine moves around patient and directing radiation precisely on the body. In advanced stage of lung cancer, radiation therapy is used before or after the surgery to relieve pain. It’s often combined with chemotherapy treatments. If surgery is not an option then Cancer Surgeon performs combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy as a primary treatment.

 

Chemotherapy: In Chemotherapy treatment, drugs are used to kill cancerous cells. Chemotherapy is often used after the surgery to kill any cancer cells that remained in the body. It can be used alone or combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy can be used before the surgery to shrink cancers. In advanced lung cancer, chemotherapy is used to relieve pain and other symptoms.

Once Lung Cancer enters the lymph nodes and bloodstream, it can easily spreads anywhere in the body. Hence treatment should be started before cancer spreads outside the lungs. The best way to prevent Lung Cancer is to quit smoking at the earliest.

Other Cancer treatment options are Radio-surgery, Targeted Drug therapy, Immunotherapy and Palliative Care. Today various modern cancer treatments are available not only to control and but also to cure the cancer. Early detection plays an important role in the complete cure or control of Lung Cancer. Dr Amit Cancer Care Clinic is a well equipped with advanced medical equipments to treat all types and stages of cancer.

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